Journal - Preliminary study of fossil freshwater molluscs of the Plio-Pleistocene Kathmandu Basin, central Nepal

Preliminary study of fossil freshwater molluscs of the Plio-Pleistocene Kathmandu Basin, central Nepal

Damayanti Gurung

Central Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal

Katsumi Takayasu

Research Center for Coastal Lagoon Environments,

Shimane University, Matsue, Japan

Hasko Nesemann

Department of Hydrobiology, University of Agricultural Sciences,

Jour. Nepal Geol. Soc., 2001, Vol. 25 (Sp. Issue), 81–88


Fossils of freshwater mollusca from the fluvio-lacustrine sediments of the Kathmandu Basin are collected from localities in the upper part of the Lukundol Formation, of Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene age, and the Gokarna Formation, of Late Pleistocene age. Despite the temporal differences of the two localities, the dominant molluscan species in each locality are similar. The fossil molluscan fauna in the older Lukundol Formation is entirely composed of prosobranch gastropod shells belonging to the genus Bellamya and opercula of the genus Digoniostoma. The fauna in the younger Gokarna Formation includes similar prosobranch species with addition of one prosobranch species, along with three pulmonate gastropods, an unidentified terrestrial gastropod and a bivalve species. The additional prosobranch species belong to the genus Gabbia, and the pulmonate gastropods are of the genera Lymnaea, Gyraulus, and Planorbis. The only bivalve species belong to the genus Pisidium.


In the Lukundol Formation, fossil molluscan shells are abundant but poor in number of species and the assemblage is dominated by lacustrine taxa preferring permanent lentic water body of shallow depth. Conversely, in the Gokarna Formation, species diversity is comparatively higher, with inhabitant of the shallow lacustrine to marginal less stable habitats. The fossil molluscan faunal composition is more similar to the recent fauna that inhabits the warmer southern Terai region of Nepal.

Member Login
  • Jul

    Academic and professional development Sub Committee of the Nepal Geological Society and Nepal Geological Students’ Society in collaboration with Central Department of Geology has organized a training and interaction program entitled “Mining and Engineering Geology in field” on 23rd  Asadh 2075 at the conference hall of the Central Department of Geology, Kirtipur.

  • May

    Nepal Geological Society has organized a press meeting on the memory of 2015 Gorkha Earthquake on 2075/1/12 at the conference hall of Department of Irrigation, Jawalakhel

Activities and Information

Activities of 17th and 18th Executive Committee
Nepal Geological Society
P.O.Box No. 231
Kathmandu, Nepal
FREEPHONE: +977-01-4437874