Two kinds of field trips are proposed in the HKT-35 workshop. The first type of field trip, “pre-conference field trip” happens before the conference, and the “post-conference field trip” starts after the conference of the HKT-35. A ‘first come, first served’ basis for the applications will be adopted on fulfilment of the fieldtrip places.
We suggest participants write the names of the participants and the purpose of payment as something like “Conference Registration” or “Field Trip Registration Ex-1”, “Field Trip Registration Ex-2”, or “Field Trip Registration Ex-3” as per the wish of the participants. We assure the participants that the funds will be reimbursed after deducting bank charges if a proposed field trip canceled.
Field trip payment should be made by bank transfer adopting the following details:
Bank name: NABIL BANK LIMITED
Swift Code: NARBNPKA
Beneficiary name: NEPAL GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Account Number: 0203217500574
Fieldtrip info and cost of the HKT-35 workshop are indicated below:
I. Pre-conference field trip: “Lesser Himalayan Crystalline and meta-sediments of central Nepal from Kathmandu-Pokhara”
Excursion leader: Prof Dr. Bishal Nath Upreti, Nepal Academy of Science and Technology
Duration: A one-day pre-conference field trip on 1st November 2022 to the Lesser Himalayan crystalline and meta-sediments of central Nepal from Kathmandu-Pokhara has been proposed.
Cost of Excursion-1 is US $100.00. The cost of the field trip from Kathmandu to Pokhara includes transportation by bus/vans, one lunch, tea/coffee break, and a guidebook.
Participant range: Minimum 15 and maximum 40
1. Observation of Lesser Himalayan allochthonous crystallines and autochthonous meta-sediments: This trip provides an opportunity to see the autochthonous meta-sediments of the Nawakot Complex (Kuncha Formation to Malekhu Limestone) consisting of black slate, phyllite, metasandstone, quartzites, dolomite, and limestone. The oldest rock of the autochthonous sediments is dated by detrital zircon to 1888 Ma (Sakai et al., 2013). Allochthonous rocks of the Kathmandu Complex are transported to the south by the Mahabharat Thrust (equivalent to MCT), which is exposed in the Malekhu River section that is illustrated by development of S-C fabric, inverted metamorphism from chlorite to garnet grade as well as rotated snow ball garnet in the thrust zone. These allochthonous rocks consist of schists, quartzite, augen gneiss, marble and hornfels with granitic intrusion (509 ±56 Ma, Le Fort et al., 1983).
2. Observation of river valley morphology and river terraces: Development of river valleys with river terraces in the Midland zone of the Nepal Himalaya as well as various levels of spectacular river terraces formed in the intermontane valley like Pokhara are typical examples of the Quaternary system in the Himalaya.
3. Natural scenery beauty: Snow-covered mountains like Ganesh Himal (7422 m), Himalchuli (7893 m) and Annapurna range (>7000 m) located to the north of the traverse section could be visible intermittently.
4. Road: The road from Kathmandu to Pokhara (about 204 km) is an asphalt road. However, the road from Malekhu Bazar to upstream of the Malekhu River is gravel (about 13 km) and the road from Malekhu to Kalidaha (about 13 km) is an asphalt road.
5. Anticipated traffic jam: Because of only one Highway passing to the west from Kathmandu, traffic jam would be possible.
6. Weather condition: November is climatically neither hot nor cold in this transect. Day time temperature varies from about 20 °C to about 15 °C.
Mahabharat Thrust (～MCT) at exposed Malekhu River (photo courtesy: Ananta Gajurel)
Development of S-C fabric in garnetiferous schist within the MT zone (photo courtesy: Ananta Gajurel)
Ordovician Agra Granite exposed in Malekhu River section (photo courtesy: Ananta Gajurel)
Valley fill sediments and level of terraces exposed on the way to Pokhara (photo courtesy: Ananta Gajurel)
II. Post-conference field trip: “Around the Pokhara Valley and its surrounding hills and mountains”
Excursion leader: Dr. Kabi Raj Paudyal, Central Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Duration: Two days staying at Pokhara on November 5 and 6, 2022.
Cost of the fieldtrip of Excursion-2 is US $175.00. The fee for 2 days of the fieldtrip in Pokhara Valley and its adjacent hills includes only transportation by bus, two lunches and tea break, and a guidebook. Participants will return to their own hotels paying by themselves for the night.
Participant range: Minimum 9 and maximum 60
1. Observation of beautiful Pokhara valley: It includes major touristic sites like International Mountain Museum, Phewa Lek, Begnas Lek, Rupa Lek and their geological histories of evolution, Davis Fall, Seti Gorge, some erratic boulders of debris-flow deposits, Mahendra and Gupteshwor Caves, observation of some Hindu and Buddhist Temples, mountain views of Dhaulagiri, Annapurna, and Machhapuchhre from the highest peak site, geological observation of Quaternary stratigraphy, development of terraces, rocks of Lesser Himalaya (both autochthons and allochthonous) and the Higher Himalaya high-grade metamorphic rocks along with the Mahabharat Thrust (MT) and the Main Central Thrust (MCT).
2. Weather Condition: November is perfect season for tourists in this transect. Day time temperature varies from about 25 °C in Pokhara to about 20 °C. Sudden rainfall is a natural event for the site of Pokhara.
View of Davis’s Fall (photo courtesy: Ananta Gajurel)
View of Phewa Lake: the most attraction for visitors (Photo: Kabi Raj Paudyal)
View of Begnas Lake (Photo: Kabi Raj Paudyal)
View of Annapurna range (photo courtesy: Ananta Gajurel)
Geomorphic view of terraces deposits by the Seti River (Photograph: Kabi Raj Paudyal)
Outcrop view Mahabharat Thrust sites, northern hill of Pokhara (Photograph: Kabi Raj Paudyal)
Extensive exposure of Quaternary valley sediments with distinct geological contacts between the units (Photograph: Kabi Raj Paudyal)
Exposure of fresh bed rocks of the Lesser Himalayan autochthons at the northern part of the Pokhara valley (Photograph: Kabi Raj Paudyal)
Quaternary exposure at the Vijayapur River section, Pokhara (Photo: Kabi Raj Paudyal)
Outcrop of the Ghachok Formation, north of Pokhara (photo: Kabi Raj Paudyal)
III. Post-conference field trip: “Traverse across the Lesser, Higher and Tethys Himalayas from Pokhara to Muktinath along the Kaligandaki River”
Excursion leader: Prof. Dr. Lalu Prasad Paudel, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal, email: email@example.com
Prof. Dr. Monique Fort, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Eng. Michał Krobicki, AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland
Duration: Five days and five nights starting from Pokhara on November 5 to Muktinath and return to Pokhara on November 9, 2022 (see the Google Image below with names of the major villages).
Day 1st (November 5 2022): Pokhara-Kusma-Tatopani; Day 2nd (November 6 2022): Tatopani-Lete-Marpha-Jomsom; Day 3rd (November 7 2022): Jomsom-Kagbeni-Muktinath; Day 4th (November 8 2022): Muktinath-Jomsom-Lete; Day 5th (November 9 2022): Lete-Kusma-Pokhara
Cost of the fieldtrip of Excursion-3 is US $600.00. The cost of the fieldtrip from Pokhara to Muktinath and return to Pokhara includes transportation by Jeeps, five breakfasts, five lunches, five dinners, five nights’ hotel accommodation in non-star hotels, National Park entry fees and TIMs, and a guidebook.
Participant range: Minimum 9 and maximum 30
1. Observing geological cross-section from Inner Lesser Himalaya to the Tethys Himalaya: Three major tectonic units of the Himalaya (Lesser Himalaya, Higher Himalaya and the Tethys Himalaya) and Thak Khola Graben sediments; Two major boundary thrusts (Main Central Thrust and South Tibetan Detachment System), spectacular megascopic and mesoscopic folds, inverted metamorphic sequence of the MCT Zone, Tethyan fossil flora and fauna.
2. Observing active geomorphic and geo-hzard processes: Erratic Quaternary river terraces of the Kali Gandaki valley, karst landforms, glaciers and moraines, mega-landslides and debris flows, landslide damming and lake formation etc.
3. Spectacular natural scenery: Spectacular scenes of snow-fed mountains (Dhaulagiri, Annapurna, Nilgiri and Machhapuchhre), crossing the high mountain along the Kali Gandaki valley (deepest gorge of the world), and natural hot springs at the MCT zone, Dhaulagiri Glacier, Passing through rhododendron forests and apple gardens.
4. Experiencing cultural diversity: Muktinath Temple, ancient Buddha Monasteries at Kagbeni and Muktinath, ethnic diversity from people living in the mid-hills to high mountains, experiencing Thakali, Gurung and Tibetan culture and food.
5. Road: Pokhara to Beni of about 100 km is a two-lane paved road, road from Beni to Lete of about 50 km is a gravel road, and Lete to Muktinath of about 55 km is partially black-topped two-lane road.
6. Anticipated hazard: If there is exceptional rainfall, there may be road blockade by landslide in the transect between Beni and Jomsom. One or the other participant could possibly get altitude problems at Muktinath, which is located around 3800 m above mean sea level. However, quick transfer to lower levels would be possible.
7. Weather condition: November is perfect season for tourists in this transect. Day time temperature varies from about 25 °C in Pokhara to about 10 °C in Muktinath. There may be sporadic rainfall in the afternoon in the Lesser and Higher Himalayas.
Photographs show the view of Kaligandaki corridor segment on top left, and terraces of the Kaligandaki River on the top right, folded Tethys sediments with Dhaulagiri peak at the background on bottom left and Marpha village with Thakkhola Graben deposit at the background on right (photo courtesy: Lalu P. Paudel).
View of Annapurna I from Lete (photo courtesy: Ananta Gajurel)
View of Nilgiri range from Kagbeni (photo courtesy: Ananta Gajurel)
View of Kagbeni village located to the north of Annapurna-Dhaulagiri range (photo courtesy: Ananta Gajurel)
Goats of Kagbeni village (photo courtesy: Ananta Gajurel)
Marpha village on the top and Belemnite fossils of Tethys sea on the bottom (photo courtesy: Ananta Gajurel)
View of Muktinath temple and nearby village area (photo courtesy: Ananta Gajurel)
Traverse across the Lesser, Higher and Tethys Himalayas from Pokhara to Muktinath
Pokhara to Beni (about 100 km) is a two-lane paved road, road from Beni to Lete (about 50 km) is a gravel road, Lete to Muktinath (55 km) partially black-topped two lane road.
Anticipated hazard :
If there is exceptional rainfall, there may be road blockade by landslide in the transect between Beni and Jomsom. One or the other participant could possibly get altitude problems at Muktinath (3800 m). However, quick transfer to lower levels would be possible.